Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon fluid stream derived from crude oil refining under CAS-no 64742-48-9 CAS-no. It is usually desulfurized and then catalyzed by modification, which changes the structure or regeneration of hydrocarbon molecules in naphtha, as well as breaking down some molecules into smaller molecules to produce a high-octane component of gasoline (or gasoline).
There are hundreds of different sources of crude oil around the world, and each crude oil has its own unique composition or method. There are also hundreds of oil refineries around the world, each designed to process either specific crude oil or specific types of crude oil. Naphtha is a general term because each refinery produces its own naphtha with its unique initial and final boiling points and other physical and compositional properties.
Naphthae may also be produced from other materials such as coal bitumen, shale sediments, bituminous sands and destructive wood distillation
The first operation of the unit in the oil refinery is the crude oil distillation unit. Overhead liquid distillation from that unit is called virgin or direct naphtha, and this distillation is the largest source of naphtha in most oil refineries. Naphtha is a mixture of different hydrocarbon compounds. The initial boiling point (IBP) is about 35 ° C and the final boiling point (FBP) is about 200 ° C and includes paraffin, naphthene (ring paraffins) and aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 to carbon atoms to atoms. Contains about 10 or 11 carbon atoms.
Virgin naphtha is often distilled into two streams:
A pristine light naphtha with IBP of about 30 ° C and FBP of about 145 ° C containing most (but not all) hydrocarbons with six or fewer carbon atoms
Heavy virgin naphtha contains most (but not all) hydrocarbons with more than six carbon atoms. Heavy naphtha has an IBP of about 140 ° C and a FBP of about 205 ° C
Heavy virgin naphtha is usually processed in a catalytic modifier because light naphtha contains molecules with six or fewer carbon atoms – which, if modified, tend to explode into butane and lower molecular weight hydrocarbons as a combination of gasoline and octane. The above are not useful. Components. Also, molecules with six carbon atoms tend to form aromatics, which is not desirable because the environmental regulations of some countries limit the amount of aromatics (especially benzene) in gasoline.
Some refinery naphtha also contain some olefinic hydrocarbons, such as naphtha derived from catalytic fluid cracking, brittle materials, and coking processes used in many refineries. Nafts containing olefins are often referred to as cracked naphtha
In some (but not all) oil refineries, cracked naphtha is desulfurized and catalytically modified (such as virgin naphtha) to produce excess high-octane gasoline components
Nafta specialties are sometimes called petroleum ethers, oil spirits, mineral spirits, paraffin oil, gasoline, hexane, ligroin, kerosene or kerosene, naphtha painters, refined solvent naphtha and fortune makers, and naphtha painters (VM). & P). The best way to determine the boiling range and other compositional properties of each of the specialized naphtha is to study the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for the naphtha of interest
On a much larger scale, petroleum naphtha is also used in the petrochemical industry as a raw material for steam modifiers and steam crackers to produce hydrogen (which may be converted to ammonia for fertilizers), ethylene, and other olefins. Natural gas is also used as a raw material for steam modifiers and steam crackers