This is the second crude oil distillation and can be used without modifiers and additives. Therefore, the first engines used D2 as fuel. Today’s diesel car now has additives that the refinery has added to make the engine more efficient and also start working in the winter. Diesel changes the “flash point” in winter. It also contains additives to absorb dense water. If you use summer diesel in winter, you will have a better mileage.
The main difference between GASOIL and D2 is in the sulfur content. only 10 years ago, the US EPA imported about 4% sulfur into GASOIL, followed by Europe and the rest of the world.
So “low sulfur diesel” is no longer 4% – but below 0.2%. Then we have an ultra-low sulfur with a maximum of 0.02%
According to ASTM, API and EPA recommendations, the ANSI standard in the United States is ANSI.
In European countries there are similar types of national standards, for example in Germany regulated by DIN, and in Russia by GOST.
The GOST type for D2 / Gasoil is GOST 305–82 and now specifies a sulfur content of 0.02 MAX, which is in accordance with the ISO standard. However, the ANSI standard calls this “ultra-low sulfur” and maintains 0.2% (2000 ppm) as “low sulfur”. Reducing sulfur in diesel used for heating has helped reduce pollution in many cities.
Diesel cars have national variants – but the most commonly traded types are EN590 and EN560, which are specified by ISO in Paris. These qualities may be sold in the United States and comply with EPA regulations in the United States. Diesel is currently being tested on highly successful aircraft, where you receive more mileage per unit weight of fuel – up to 40% increase. These days, when there is no rock left to reduce heavy gas emissions, the result may be that the planes are flying on diesel and not kerosene. The problem is condensate / ice particles that may completely destroy the jet engine (which is a turbine). An initial solution is to heat the diesel before injection and pass it through an electrostatic precipitator.